Conference Papers

Ayyub, B.M., Pantelous, A.A., and Shao, J., 2016, Towards Resilience to Catastrophic Events: Financing Liabilities via Catastrophe Risk Bonds, Conference Paper, DOI: 10.6028/NIST.SP.1600, Conference: NIST-ASCE-ASME Workshop on the Economics of Community Disaster Resilience, At Reston, USA, Volume: Special Publication (NIST SP).
Huang, H., Zhang, D.M., and Ayyub, B. M., 2016, An Integrated Risk Sensing System for Geostructural Safety, Geosafe Conference, International Society for Rock Mechanics (ISRM), the Chinese Society for Rock Mechanics and Engineering (CSRME) and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), May 25-27, 2016, Xi’an, China.
Ayyub, B. M., Keynote, “Practical Resilience Metrics for Critical Infrastructure,” Ed. S.S. Chen and A. Ang, Symposium on Reliability Engineering Systems (SRES 2015) at the Taiwan Tech (National Taiwan University of Science & Technology) in Taipei, Taiwan, October 21-24, 2015.
Wright, R. N., and Ayyub, B.M., “Measurement Needs for Adaptation to Climate Change,” in Measurement Science for Sustainable Construction and Manufacturing, Volume I, edited by Ayyub Galloway and Wright, University of Maryland Report to the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Office of Applied Economics, Gaithersburg, MD, 2014.
Ayyub, B.M., “Value Systems and Information Necessary for Sustainable Construction and Manufacturing,” in Measurement Science for Sustainable Construction and Manufacturing, Volume I, edited by Ayyub Galloway and Wright, University of Maryland Report to the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Office of Applied Economics, Gaithersburg, MD, 2014.
Ayyub, B. M., Olsen, R. J., Vinson, T. S., and Wright, R. N., “Adapting Infrastructure Practices to Climate Change,”  Proceedings of the 2014 International Conference on Sustainable Infrastructure, American Society of Civil Engineers, November 2014, pp 229-245.
Lombardo, F. T., and Ayyub, B. M., “Plan for Characterizing Uncertainties in Extreme Environmental Loads with Climate Change Considerations: Wind Speed and Wave Height as Case Studies,” Ed. M. Beer, S.-K. Au and J. W. Hall, Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Vulnerability and Risk Analysis and Management (ICVRAM 2014) and the Sixth International Symposium on Uncertainty Modeling and Analysis (ISUMA 2014) on July 13-16, 2014 at the University of Liverpool, UK, ASCE, Reston, VA, ISBN 978-0-7844-1360-9, 1363-1372.
Ayyub, B. M., “Resilience Metrics for Multi-Hazard Environments,” Ed. M. Beer, S.-K. Au and J. W. Hall, Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Vulnerability and Risk Analysis and Management (ICVRAM 2014) and the Sixth International Symposium on Uncertainty Modeling and Analysis (ISUMA 2014) on July 13-16, 2014 at the University of Liverpool, UK, ASCE, Reston, VA, ISBN 978-0-7844-1360-9, 925-936.
Ayyub, B. M., Keynote, “Probabilistic Methodology for Quantifying Regional Risk Profiles from Sea Level Rise,” Ed. M. Beer, S.-K. Au and J. W. Hall, Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Vulnerability and Risk Analysis and Management (ICVRAM 2014) and the Sixth International Symposium on Uncertainty Modeling and Analysis (ISUMA 2014) on July 13-16, 2014 at the University of Liverpool, UK, ASCE, Reston, VA, ISBN 978-0-7844-1360-9, 1-12.
Ayyub, B. M., and Zhang, Y., Keynote, “Monitoring the Health of Structures for Quantifying and Achieving Resilience for Natural Hazards,” Ed. S.S. Chen and A. Ang, The 4th International Symposium on Reliability Engineering and Risk Management (ISRERM 2014) at the Taiwan Tech (National Taiwan University of Science & Technology) in Taipei, Taiwan, May 20-24, 2014.
Ayyub, B. M., “Quantification and Valuations of Resilience for Emergency Management,” Ed. Xila Liu and Al Ang, Proceedings of the International Conference on Sustainable Development of Critical Infrastructure (IC-SDCI 2014), Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU), May 16-18, 2014, ASCE, Reston, VA, ISBN TBD.
Ayyub, B. M., Keynote, “Natural Hazards in a Changing Climate: Impacts, Adaptation and Risk Management,” Ed. Xila Liu and Al Ang, Proceedings of the International Conference on Sustainable Development of Critical Infrastructure (IC-SDCI 2014), Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU), May 16-18, 2014, ASCE, Reston, VA, ISBN TBD.
Ayyub, B. M., invited discussion of the paper #T32 which will be presented at the SNAME Annual Meeting in Bellevue, WA on Thursday, November 7, 2013, “Statistical Estimation of Extreme Roll Responses in Short Crested Irregular Head Seas,” By Dae-Hyun Kim and Armin W. Troesch, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
Ayyub, B. M., “Seismic Resiliency of Infrastructure in Cold Regions: Definition, Metrics and Valuation for Decision Making,” International Symposium on Cold Regions Development, ASCE, June 2-5, 2013, Anchorage, Alaska.
Ayyub, B. M., “Bridging the Gap Between Climate Change Science and Engineering Practice: Effects of Climate Change on Engineering Sectors,” 2013 Carbon Management Technology Conference, AIChE, ASCE and ASME, Oct. 21-23, 2013 in Alexandria, VA.
Ayyub, B. M., “Infrastructure Resiliency in a Changing Climate: Definition, Metrics and Valuation for Decision Making,” 2013 Carbon Management Technology Conference, AIChE, ASCE and ASME, Oct. 21-23, 2013 in Alexandria, VA.
Lombardo, F. T., and Ayyub, B. M., “Challenges on Adaptation to a Changing Climate: Wind Speed and Wave Height as Case Studies,” 2013 Carbon Management Technology Conference, AIChE, ASCE and ASME, Oct. 21-23, 2013 in Alexandria, VA.
Ayyub, B. M., “Risk of Extreme Storms and Sea Level Rise with Changing Climate Considerations,” Proceedings of the Pacific-Rim Workshop on Innovations in Infrastructure Engineering, Editors: S.-S. Chen, A. H.-S. Ang and I._T. Yang, National Taiwan University of Science & Technology, 9 to 11 January 2013, Taipei, Taiwan, pages 3-120.
Ayyub, B. M., “Uncertainty Analysis and Risk Quantification for Adaptation to Sea Level Rise,” Paper CMTC-153151-PP, Carbon Management Technology Conference, ASCE, etc., Feb 2012, Orlando, FL.
Chang, C.-Y., and Ayyub, B. M., “Statistical Characterization and Prediction of Sea Waves Based on Buoy Data,” Ed. B. Ayyub, Proceedings of the First International Conference on Vulnerability and Risk Analysis and Management (ICVRAM 2011) and the Fifth International Symposium on Uncertainty Modeling and Analysis (ISUMA 2011) on April 11-13, 2011, ASCE, Reston, VA, DOI: 10.1061/41170(400)14.
Kearney, M., and Ayyub, M., “Understanding What Predictions of Future Sea Level Rise Mean for Assessment of Vulnerability and Risk for the Built Coast,” Ed. B. Ayyub, Proceedings of the First International Conference on Vulnerability and Risk Analysis and Management (ICVRAM 2011) and the Fifth International Symposium on Uncertainty Modeling and Analysis (ISUMA 2011) on April 11-13, 2011, ASCE, Reston, VA, DOI: 10.1061/41170(400)94.
Ayyub, B. M., Kearney, M., Ramirez, J., Markham, K., Chang, C.-Y., “Development of Spatial Risk Profiles Resulting from Sea Level Rise,” Ed. B. Ayyub, Proceedings of the First International Conference on Vulnerability and Risk Analysis and Management (ICVRAM 2011) and the Fifth International Symposium on Uncertainty Modeling and Analysis (ISUMA 2011) on April 11-13, 2011, ASCE, Reston, VA, DOI: 10.1061/41170(400)41.
Ayyub, B. M., Markham, K., and Chang, C.-Y., “Development of Spatial Risk Profiles of Cargo Rail Systems,” Ed. B. Ayyub, Proceedings of the First International Conference on Vulnerability and Risk Analysis and Management (ICVRAM 2011) and the Fifth International Symposium on Uncertainty Modeling and Analysis (ISUMA 2011) on April 11-13, 2011, ASCE, Reston, VA, DOI: 10.1061/41170(400)24.
Kamal, H. A., and Ayyub, B. M., “Methodology for Risk Analysis of Ground Surface Subsidence,” Ed. B. Ayyub, Proceedings of the First International Conference on Vulnerability and Risk Analysis and Management (ICVRAM 2011) and the Fifth International Symposium on Uncertainty Modeling and Analysis (ISUMA 2011) on April 11-13, 2011, ASCE, Reston, VA.
Koko, T. S., Brennan, D.P., Akpan, U.O., Ayyub, B. M., “V-Optimizer: A Reliability-Based Design Optimization Tool for Ship Hull Girder,” Integrating Structural Analysis, Risk & Reliability, 5th International ASRANet Conference, Scotland, UK, 14 – 16th June 2010.
Gavardashvili, G., Ayyub, B. M., “A Field Investigation of Erosion – Debris Flow Processes in Catchment Basin of The Duruji River,” 5th International Conference on Debris-Flow Hazards Mitigation: Mechanics, Prediction and Assessment, June 14-17, 2011, University of Padua, Italy, pages 63-70.
Gavardashvili, G., Ayyub, B. M., “Prediction of Flooding and Mudflow forming in Case of Accident at the Zhinvali Earth Dam,” International Symposium Floods and Modern Methods of Control Measures, Tbilisi, Georgia, 23-28 September 2009.
Ayyub, B. M., “On Uncertainty in Information and Ignorance in Knowledge,” Uncertainty and Information in Systems, Mini Symposium in Honor of Distinguished Professor George J. Klir’s Retirement, State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY, September 21, 2007, http://emrs.binghamton.edu/Symposium/index.html.
Ayyub, B. M., “Risk Analysis of a Protected Hurricane Prone Region,” The Fourth Civil Engineering Conference in the Asian Region (4th CECAR), Working for Asian Sustainability, ASCE Tutorial & Workshop of Quantitative Risk Analysis (QRA), 49-53, 2007.
Ayyub, B. M., and McGill, W. L., “An All-Hazards Methodology for Critical Asset and Portfolio Risk Analysis,” The Fourth Civil Engineering Conference in the Asian Region (4th CECAR), Working for Asian Sustainability, ASCE Tutorial & Workshop of Quantitative Risk Analysis (QRA), 43-48, 2007.
Ayyub, B. M., Critical Asset & Portfolio Risk Analysis: Terminology, Fundamentals, and Case Studies, The Anti-Terrorism Advisory Council of Maryland Training Workshop, All-Hazards Forum, Baltimore, MD, October 12, 2006.
Ayyub, B. M., The Protection of Critical Infrastructure, Six Questions, a Changing Threat, And an Unknown Number of Algorithms, Domestic Preparedness Journal, http://www.domprep.com/pub/docs/DPJournal1116.pdf, 2005.
Ayyub, B. M., “Reliability of Civil Infrastructure, Measuring Risks, Different Views,” 2006 Annual Meeting of Transportation Research Board (TRB), A Session on “Improving Reliability of Transportation Systems: From Concept to Actions and the Role of Computation and Information” Sponsored by the Artificial Intelligence and Advanced Computation Committee, Washington, DC.
Scouras, J., Parnell, G. S., Ayyub, B. M., and Colletti, B. W., Dillon-Merrill, R. L., and Liebe, R. M., “A Risk Framework for Homeland Security,” 2005 Annual Meeting of the Society for Risk Analysis, Orlando, FL.
Ayyub, B. M., Kaminskiy, M., Scouras, J., and Colletti, B. W., “Risk Representations for Homeland Security Applications,” 2005 Annual Meeting of the Society for Risk Analysis, Orlando, FL.
McGill, W. L., and Ayyub, B. M., “A Quantitative Approach to Intelligence Analysis: Application of the Transferable Belief Model to the Analysis of Competing Hypotheses,” 2005 Annual Meeting of the Society for Risk Analysis, Orlando, FL.
Ayyub, B. M., Assakkaf, I., Avrithi, K., Gupta, A., Shah, N., Kotwicki, P., and Hill, R. S., “Risk-Informed Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) Methods for Piping,” ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, November 6-11, 2005, Orlando, FL.
Ayyub, B. M., “Uncertainty Analysis, and Efficient Networked Systems,” Critical Infrastructure Protection R&D Workshop for Academic and Federal Lab R&D Providers, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC, June 2005.
Ayyub, B. M., “Risk Analysis for Critical Infrastructure and Key Asset Protection: Methods and Challenges,” CREATE Symposium on Terrorism Risk Analysis, Center for Risk & Economic Analysis of Terrorism Events, U.S. Department of Homeland Security Center of Excellence, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, January, 2005.
Ayyub, B. M., Assakkaf, I., Avrithi, K., Gupta, A., Shah, N., Kotwicki, P., and Hill III, R. S., “Development of Reliability-Based Load and Resistance Factor Design Methods for Piping,” 13th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering, China, April 2005.
Ayyub, B. M., “Risk-Informed Methods for Protecting Nuclear Facilities,” American Nuclear Society, Nuclear Installation Safety Division, Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, 2004.
Ayyub, B. M., (invited Keynote Lecture by the University of Glasgow and the University of Strathclyde) “Ignorance Analysis for Discovery and Knowledge Construction,” 2nd International ASRANET Colloquium, the Network for Integrating Structural Safety, Risk and Reliability, July 5-7, 2004, Barcelona, Spain.
Ayyub, B. M., (invited Distinguished Lecture by the Brazilian Research Agency) “Risk-informed Inspection of Industrial Equipment,” 17th International Congress of Mechanical Engineering, COBEM2003, São Paulo, Brazil, November 2003, 10 pages.
Ayyub, B. M., and Nejaim, K., “Risk-Based Compliance Assessment Models for Personal Flotation Devices,” Proceedings of the International Symposium on Uncertainty Modeling and Analysis (ISUMA), edited by Ayyub and Attoh-Okine, IEEE-CS, September, 2003, College Park, MD, 241-246.
Wilcox, R., and Ayyub, B. M., “Uncertainty Modeling of Data and Uncertainty Propagation for Risk Studies,” Proceedings of the International Symposium on Uncertainty Modeling and Analysis (ISUMA), edited by Ayyub and Attoh-Okine, IEEE-CS, September, 2003, College Park, MD, 184-191.
Sims. J. R., Ayyub, B. M., Balkey, K. R., and Feigel, R. E., “A Common Approach to Risk Analysis for Homeland Security Decision-Making,” ASME Congress 2003, Washington, DC, Paper No. IMECE2003-42598, November 2003, 8 pages.
Ayyub, B. M., Hill, Ralph, III, and Balkey, K. R., ” Development of Reliability-Based Load and Resistance Factor Design Methods for Piping,” Eleventh International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE11), Shinjuku, Tokyo, Japan, April 20-23, 2003, Paper No., 36577, 8 pages.
Ayyub, B. M., (invited Keynote Paper), “From Dissecting Ignorance to Solving Algebraic Problems,” Workshop on Epistemic Uncertainty, Sandia National Laboratories, August 2002, 24 pages.
Kamal, H. A., and Ayyub, B. M., “Correlation Effects on Reliability Assessment of Structural Systems,” the 15th ASCE Engineering Mechanics Conference, ASCE, Columbia University, June 2-5, 2002, New York, NY.
Wilcox, R., and Ayyub, B. M., “A Risk-Based Compliance Approval Process for Engineering Systems with Considerations for Safety Equivalency,” the Sixth International Conference on Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management (PSAM6), Society of Risk Analysis, 2002.
Wilcox, R., and Ayyub, B. M., “A Risk-Based Compliance Approval Process for Engineering Systems with Personal Floatation Devices as a Case Study,” SNAME annual conference, 26 pages, 2002.
Ayyub, B. M., “Ignorance Categories and Uncertainty for Computational Methods in Engineering Science,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Enhancement and Promotion of Computational Methods in Engineering and Science, Edited by Shaopei, et al., June 25-28, 2001, Shanghai, China, Pages 223-240.
Ayyub, B. M., “Ignorance and Uncertainty Types in Designing Future Space Missions and Systems,” Nondeterministic Approaches and Their Potential for Future Aerospace Systems, NASA Workshop, NASA/CP-2001-211050, Edited by A. K. Noor, September 2001, Pages 37-66.
Al-Fadhala, M. M., and Ayyub, B. M., “Decision Analysis Using Belief Functions for Assessing Existing Structures,” International Conference on Structural Safety and Reliability, ICOSSAR, 8 pages, 2001.
Assakkaf, I. A., Ayyub, B. M., de Souza, G. F. M., and Mattei, N. J., “Strength Models for Developing LRFD Rules for Hull Girders of Ship Structures,” International Conference on Structural Safety and Reliability, ICOSSAR, 8 pages, 2001.
Kamal, H. A., and Ayyub, B. M., “Simulation-based Fault Tree Analysis for Assessing the Reliability of Structural Systems,” International Conference on Structural Safety and Reliability, ICOSSAR, 8 pages, 2001.
de Souza, G. F. M., and Ayyub, B. M., “Risk-Based Methodology for Assessing and Managing Structural Integrity,” International Conference on Structural Safety and Reliability, ICOSSAR, 8 pages, 2001.
Eloseily, K., Ayyub, B. M., and Patev, R. C., “System Reliability Assessment for Pile Group Considering Loss of Support,” International Conference on Structural Safety and Reliability, ICOSSAR, 8 pages, 2001.
Ayyub, B. M., “Uncertainties in Expert-Opinion Elicitation for Risk Studies,” Proceedings of the United Engineering Foundation Conference on Risk-Based Decision Making in Water Resources IX, Edited by Y. Y. Haimes, D. A. Moser and E. Z. Stakhiv, October 15-20, 2000, ASCE, 2001, 103-121.
Bender, W. J., and Ayyub, B. M., “Risk-Based Cost Control for Construction,” 45th Annual Meeting of the Association of Advancement of Cost Engineering, June 17-20, 2001, CSC.01, Pittsburgh, PA.
Bender, W. J., Blair, A. N., and Ayyub, B. M., “US Industrial Capacity and Risk-based Simulation for the Construction of the Mobile Offshore Base,” Ocean Space Utilization Symposium, OMAE01/OSU-5024, June 4-6, 2001, 42 pages.
Ayyub, B.M., “Hierarchical Ignorance Categories and Uncertainty Types in Engineering Systems,” Professor Al Ang Symposium – Celebration of His Career, March 2000, organized by Professor Aspasia Zerva, Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, 21 pages.
Ayyub, B. M., and de Souza, G. F. M., “Reliability-Based Methodology for Life Prediction of Ship Structures,” SSC/SNAME/ASNE Ship Structure Symposium, Ship Structure Committee, SNAME, and SNAME, June 13-14, 2000, 25 pages.
Ayyub, B.M., and Assakkaf, I., “Reliability-Based Structural Design of Ships Using Load and Resistance Factor Design,” SSC/SNAME/ASNE Ship Structure Symposium, Ship Structure Committee, SNAME, and ASNE, June 13-14, 2000, 21 pages.
Cybulsky, M. K., Currie, R. L., Bender, W., Blair, A. N., and Ayyub, B.M., “Simulation and Modeling of the Construction of a Mobile Offshore Base,” Japan Cooperative Program in Natural Resources, Japan, 2000, 9 pages.
de Souza, G. F. M., and Ayyub, B. M., “Risk-Based Inspection Planning for Ship Hull Structures,” The NAVSEA Association of Scientists & Engineers (ASE) Professional Development Committee, 2000 NAVSEA (U. S. Navy) Technical Symposium, Crystal City, VA, 2000, 18 pages.
Assakkaf, I., Ayyub, B. M., and Mattei, N. J., “Reliability-Based Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) of Hull Structural Components of Surface Ships,” The NAVSEA Association of Scientists & Engineers (ASE) Professional Development Committee, 2000 NAVSEA (U. S. Navy) Technical Symposium, Crystal City, VA, 2000, 20 pages.
Wlicox, R., Burrows, M., Shosh, S., and Ayyub, B. M. “Risk-based Technology Methodology for the Safety Assessment of Marine Compressed Natural Gas Fuel Systems,” International Cooperation on Marine Engineering Systems, SNAME, 8th ICMES/SNAME New York Metropolitan Section Symposium, New York, May 22-23, 2000, 21 pages.
Eloseily, K., and Ayyub, B. M. “System Reliability Assessment for Pile Groups,” 8th ASCE Specialty Conference on Probabilistic Mechanics and Structural Reliability, ASCE, PMC 2000-110, University of Notre Dame, South Bend, IN, June 2000, 6 pages.
Kamal, H. A., and Ayyub, B. M. “Variance Reduction Techniques for Simulation-based Structural Reliability Assessment of Systems,” 8th ASCE Specialty Conference on Probabilistic Mechanics and Structural Reliability, ASCE, PMC 2000-155, University of Notre Dame, South Bend, IN, June 2000, 6 pages.
Assakkaf, I., Ayyub, B. M., and Mattei, N. J., “Strength Models for Developing LRFD Rules for Stiffened and Gross Panels of Ship Structures,” 8th ASCE Specialty Conference on Probabilistic Mechanics and Structural Reliability, ASCE, PMC 2000-208, University of Notre Dame, South Bend, IN, June 2000, 6 pages.
Assakkaf, I., and Ayyub, B. M., “Load and Resistance Factor Design Approach for Fatigue of Marine Structures,” 8th ASCE Specialty Conference on Probabilistic Mechanics and Structural Reliability, ASCE, PMC 2000-169, University of Notre Dame, South Bend, IN, June 2000, 6 pages.
Bender, W. J., and Ayyub, B. M. “Assessment of the Construction Feasibility of the Mobile Offshore Base,” the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers, ISOPE 2000, Seattle, Washington, May 28-June 2, 2000, 15 pages.
Ayyub, B. M., and Perdue, R. K., “The Development of Risk-Informed Qualification (RIQ) Guidelines for Active Mechanical Equipment,” Paper 8299, Proceedings of ICONE 8, 8th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering, April 2-6, 2000, Baltimore, MD, 5 pages.
Ayyub, B. M., “Benefits of Risk-Informed Design of Ship Systems,” The Compass: The Newsletter of the Gulf Coast Region Maritime Technology Center, University of New Orleans, Volume 1, Issue 3, Summer 1999.
Popescu, C., and Ayyub, B. M. “Verification and Validation (V&V) of Probabilistic Computational Mechanics Methods,” Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Very Large Floating Structures, edited by R. C. Ertekin and J. W. Kim, Sea Grant Communication Office, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, September 22-24, 1999, Volume I, 79-88.
Bender, W. J., and Ayyub, B. M. “Assessment of the Construction Feasibility of the Mobile Offshore Base,” Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Very Large Floating Structures, edited by R. C. Ertekin and J. W. Kim, Sea Grant Communication Office, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, September 22-24, 1999, Volume II, 699-707.
Assakkaf, I. A., and Ayyub, B. M. “Reliability-based Design for Fatigue of Marine Structures,” Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Very Large Floating Structures, edited by R. C. Ertekin and J. W. Kim, Sea Grant Communication Office, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, September 22-24, 1999, Volume I, 388-397.
Blair, A. N., and Ayyub, B. M. “Fuzzy Stochastic Cost And Schedule Risk Analysis: MOB Case Study,” Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Very Large Floating Structures, edited by R. C. Ertekin and J. W. Kim, Sea Grant Communication Office, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, September 22-24, 1999, Volume II, 733-742.
Blair, A. N., and Ayyub, B. M. “Probabilistic Branching and Looping in Fuzzy Stochastic Network Schedules,” 13th ASCE Engineering Mechanics Division Specialty Conference, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, June 13-16, 1999, 6 pages.
Popescu, C., and Ayyub, B. M. “Web-based Computing of Time-dependent Reliability of Structural Systems,” 13th ASCE Engineering Mechanics Division Specialty Conference, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, June 13-16, 1999, 6 pages.
Eloseily, K. H., and Ayyub, B. M. “Ultimate Strength of Pile Foundations under Lateral Loads for Reliability Analysis,” 13th ASCE Engineering Mechanics Division Specialty Conference, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, June 13-16, 1999, 6 pages
Assakkaf, I. A., and Ayyub, B. M. “Strength Models for Developing LRFD Rules for Unstiffened Panels of Marine Structures,” 13th ASCE Engineering Mechanics Division Specialty Conference, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, June 13-16, 1999, 6 pages
Kamal, H., and Ayyub, B. M. “Reliability Assessment of Structural Systems Using Discrete-Event Simulation,” 13th ASCE Engineering Mechanics Division Specialty Conference, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, June 13-16, 1999, 6 pages.
Ayyub, B. M. “Knowledge, Information, Ignorance, and Uncertainty for Validation and Verification of Simulation and Computational Results,” Symposium on Validation and Verification of Computational Mechanics Codes, California Institute of Technology, CA, December 9-11, 1998.
Blair, A. N., Howard, A. R., and Ayyub, B. M. “Schedule Risk Analysis Methodologies for Complex Engineering Systems: NIMS Case Study,” Air Traffic Control Association Conference Proceedings, Atlantic City, NJ, November 1998.
Ayyub, B. M., Karaszewski, Z., and Klim, Z., “Fuzzy-Based Decision Analysis for Risk Assessment of Marine Systems,” AIAA Forum, Paper No. 99-1578, St. Louis, MO, April 12-15, 1999.
Ayyub, B. M. “Civil Engineering Educators of the 21st Century,” in Civil Engineering Education Beyond 2000 Session, ASCE Boston Convention, October 18-21, 1998, MA.
Karaszewski, Z., Ayyub, B. M., and Wade, M., “Risk Analysis and Marine Industry Standards”, Ship Production Symposium ’97, New Orleans, April 1997, 13 pages.
Ziara, M., and Ayyub, B.M., “Methodology for Constructing Reduced-cost Housing: Systems Framework with Decision Analysis,” Proceedings of the Conference on Affordable Housing in Palestine, November 1996, 23 pages.
Wilcox, R.C., Karaszewski, Z.I., and Ayyub, B.M., “Methodology for Risk-based Technology Applications to Marine System Safety,” Proceedings of the Ship Structures Symposium, SSC and SNAME, Arlington, VA 1996, D1-D15.
Chang, O., and Ayyub, B.M., “Hybrid Regression Analysis for Uncertainty Modelling,” Proceedings of the NAFIPS’96, IEEE, June 1996, Berkeley, CA, 92-96.
Hassan, M.H.M., and Ayyub, B.M., “A Neural Mode Shape Identifier,” Proceedings of the Joint ISUMA-NAFIPS’95, edited by Ayyub, IEEE-CS, April, 1995, College Park, MD, 559-563.
Hassan, M.H.M., and Ayyub, B.M., “A General System Identification Framework for Structural Systems,” Proceedings of the Joint ISUMA-NAFIPS’95, ed. Ayyub, IEEE-CS, April, 1995, College Park, MD, 216-221.
Assakkaf, I.A., and Ayyub, B.M., “Reliability-based Design of Unstiffened Panels for Ship Structures,” Proceedings of the Joint ISUMA-NAFIPS’95, edited by Ayyub, IEEE-CS, April, 1995, College Park, MD, 692-697.
Atua, K.I., and Ayyub, B.M., “Uncertainties in Loads for Ship Structures,” Proceedings of the Joint ISUMA-NAFIPS’95, edited by Ayyub, IEEE-CS, April, 1995, College Park, MD, 460-465.
Muhanna, R.L., and Ayyub, B.M., “Modeling Geometric Uncertainties of Continuum Structures for Reliability Assessment Purposes,” Proceedings of the Joint ISUMA-NAFIPS’95, edited by Ayyub, IEEE-CS, April, 1995, College Park, MD, 145-150.
Chao, R.-J., and Ayyub, B.M., “Distributions with Fuzziness and Randomness,” Proceedings of the Joint ISUMA-NAFIPS’95, edited by Ayyub, IEEE-CS, April, 1995, College Park, MD, 668-673.
Chao, R.-J., and Ayyub, B.M., “Fuzzy-based Analysis of Structures,” Proceedings of the Joint ISUMA-NAFIPS’95, edited by Ayyub, IEEE-CS, April, 1995, College Park, MD, 355-360.
Ayyub, B.M., “Loading Cycles for Fatigue Reliability Assessment of Miter Gates at Navigation Locks on the Upper Mississippi River,” Proceedings of the 1996 ASCE Specialty Conference on Probabilistic Mechanics and Structure Reliability, edited by Frangopol and Grigoriu, August 7-9, 1996, 854-857.
Ayyub, B.M., and Chao, R.-J., “Reliability Assessment Methodology for Sliding Stability of Gravity Structures,” Proceedings of the 1996 ASCE Specialty Conference on Probabilistic Mechanics and Structure Reliability, edited by Frangopol and Grigoriu, August 7-9, 1996, 858-861.
Wirsching, P.H., Mansour, A.E., Ayyub, B.M., and White, G.J., “Probability-based Design Requirements with Respect to Fatigue in Ship Structures,” Proceedings of the 1996 ASCE Specialty Conference on Probabilistic Mechanics and Structure Reliability, edited by Frangopol and Grigoriu, August 7-9, 1996, 114-117.
White, G.J., Ayyub, B.M., Mansour, A.E., and Wirsching, P.H., “Probability-based Design Requirements for Longitudinally Stiffened Panels in Ship Structures,” Proceedings 1996 ASCE Specialty Conference on Probabilistic Mechanics and Structure Reliability, ed. Frangopol and Grigoriu, August 7-9, 1996, 110-113.
Ayyub, B.M., White, G.J., Mansour, A.E., and Wirsching, P.H., “Probability Based Design Requirements for Unstiffened Panels in Ship Structures,” Proceedings of the 1996 ASCE Specialty Conference on Probabilistic Mechanics and Structure Reliability, edited by Frangopol and Grigoriu, August 7-9, 1996, 102-105.
Atua, K.I., Assakkaf, I., and Ayyub, B.M., “Statistical Characteristics of Strength and Load Random Variables of Ship Structures, “Proceedings of the 1996 ASCE Specialty Conference on Probabilistic Mechanics and Structure Reliability, edited by Frangopol and Grigoriu, August 7-9, 1996, 106-109.
Mansour, A.E., Wirsching, P.H., Ayyub, B.M., and White, G.J., “Reliability Based Design Requirements for Ship Structures,” Proceedings of the 1996 ASCE Specialty Conference on Probabilistic Mechanics and Structure Reliability, edited by Frangopol and Grigoriu, August 7-9, 1996, 98-101.
Mansour, A.E., Wirsching, P.H., Ayyub, B.M., and White, G.J., “Code Development for Ships – A Demonstration,” 15th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, OMAE’96, Florence, Italy, June 16-20, 1996, 18 pages.
Ayyub, B.M., “Uncertainty and Intelligence in Computational Stochastic Mechanics,” Proceedings of the NASA Workshop on Computational Intelligence and Its Impact on Future High-performance Engineering Systems, NASA Conference Publication 3323, Hampton, VA, edited by A. Noor, 1996, 127-205.
Carter, W.J., Hsiao, C.P., and Ayyub, B.M., “Robust Risk-Based Inspection Procedure for the Petrochemical Industry,” Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, ASME, June 1994, 16 pages.
Nikolaidis, E., Hughes, O., Ayyub, B.M., and White, G.J., “Reliability Analysis of Stiffened Plates in Ship Structures,” Proceedings of the Structures Congress, edited by N.C. Baker and B.J. Goodno, ASCE, Atlanta, GA, April 24-28, 1994, 1466-1471.
Ayyub, B.M., and Lai, K.-L., “Uncertainty Measures for Reliability Assessment of Ship Structures,” Poster Session, Structures Congress, ASCE, Atlanta, GA, April 24-28, 1994.
Chang, Y.-H.O., and Ayyub, B.M., “Least Squares in Fuzzy Regression: Limits and Extensions,” Proceedings of the 12th Annual Meeting of the North-American Fuzzy Information Processing Society, Allentown, PA, Edited by M. McAllister, August 22-25, 1993, 98-102.
Chang, Y.-H.O., Johnson, P.A., and Ayyub, B.M., “Reliability Analysis in Fuzzy Regression,” Proceedings of the 12th Annual Meeting of the North-American Fuzzy Information Processing Society, Allentown, PA, Edited by M. McAllister, August 22-25, 1993, 93-97.
Ayyub, B.M., “Extreme Analysis of Wave Pressure and Corrosion for Structural Life Prediction,” Proceedings of the Conference on Extreme Value Theory and Its Applications, Gaithersburg, MD, May 2-7, 1993, Volume 3, edited by J. Galambos, J. Lechner and E. Simiu, NIST Special Publication 866, August 1994, 31-39.
Johnson, P., and Ayyub, B.M., “Uncertainty of Bridge Scour Estimates,” ASCE Proceedings, Hydraulic Engineering’93, Volume 2, 1993, 2087-2091.
Hassan, M.H.M., and Ayyub, B.M., “Multi-attribute fuzzy control of construction activities,” The Second International Symposium on Uncertainty Modeling and Analysis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, April 25-29, 1993, 641-645.
Tan, C., and Ayyub, B.M., “Uncertainty analysis in earthquake hazard reduction,” The Second International Symposium on Uncertainty Modeling and Analysis, UMD, College Park, MD, April 25-29, 1993, 603-610.
Tan, C., and Ayyub, B.M., “Gray decisions in construction activities,” The Second International Symposium on Uncertainty Modeling and Analysis, UMD, College Park, MD, April 25-29, 1993, 479-486.
Johnson, P., and Ayyub, B.M., “Incorporating uncertainty into bridge pier scour estimations,” The Second International Symposium on Uncertainty Modeling and Analysis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, April 25-29, 1993, 136-140.
White, G.J., and Ayyub, B.M., “Uncertainties in Resistance and Strength Measures of Marine Structures,” The Second International Symposium on Uncertainty Modeling and Analysis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, April 25-29, 1993, 595-602.
Nikolaidis, E., Hughes, O.F., Ayyub, B.M., and White, G.J., “A Methodology for Reliability Assessment of Ship Structures,” Ship Structures Symposium 93, SNAME, Arlington, VA, November 16-17, 1993, H1-H10.
Chia, C.-Y., and Ayyub, B.M., “Conditional Sampling for Simulation-Based Structural Reliability Assessment,” 6th International Conference on Structural Safety and Reliability, ICOSSAR’93, Innsbruck, Austria, edited by Schuëller, Shinozuka and Yao, Balkema Publishers, NY, USA, August 9-13, 1993, 1233-1240.
Hassan, M.H.M., and Ayyub, B.M., “Fuzzy-Based Safety Control: A Case Study,” The Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Structural Safety and Reliability, ICOSSAR’93, Innsbruck, Austria, edited by Schuëller, Shinozuka and Yao, Balkema Publishers, NY, USA, August 9-13, 1993, 1511-1518.
Balkey, K.R., Ayyub, B.M., and Chapman, O.J.V., “International Risk-Based Inspection Technology Development,” Winter Annual Meeting of ASME, Anaheim, CA, November 8-13, 1992, 92-WA/SAF-6, 6 pages.
Hassan, M.H.M., and Ayyub, B.M., “A Safety Controller for Structural Systems,” Winter Annual Meeting of ASME, Anaheim, CA, November 8-13, 1992, 92-WA/SAF-2, 10 pages.
Johnson, P.A., and Ayyub, B.M., “Probability of Bridge Failure Due to Pier Scour,” Proceedings of the 1992 National Conference on Water Resources Planning and Management, Water FORUM’92, Baltimore, MD, August 3-5, 1992, 690-695.
Hassan, M.H.M., and Ayyub, B.M., “A Two-Stage Safety Assessment Methodology for Construction Activities,” Proceedings of ASCE Specialty Conference on Probabilistic Mechanics and Structural & Geotechnical Reliability, edited by Y.K. Lin, July 1992, 515-518.
Ayyub, B.M., and Chia, C.-Y., “Sensitivity Evaluation of Simulation Methods for Reliability Assessment,” Proceedings of ASCE Specialty Conference on Probabilistic Mechanics and Structural & Geotechnical Reliability, edited by Y.K. Lin, July 1992, 240-243.
White, G.J., and Ayyub, B.M., “Determining the effects of Corrosion on Steel Structures: A Probabilistic Approach,” Proceedings of the 11th Conference on Mechanics and Arctic Engineering (OMAE), Calgary, Canada, Vol. II: Safety and Reliability, edited by Guedes Soares, Murotsu, Pittaluga, Spencer, and Stahl, June 7-11, 1992, 45-52.
Hassan, M.H.M., and Ayyub, B.M., “Fuzzy-Based Controller for Construction Activities,” Canadian Conference and Exhibit on Industrial Automation, June 1-3, 1992, Montreal, Canada, 1.1-1.4.
Hassan, M.H.M., and Ayyub, B.M., “Real-Time Risk-Based Control of Construction Activities,” 1991 annual conference of the Society for Risk Analysis, Baltimore, MD, MPM-I3, December 8-11, 1991, A-37.
Hassan, M.H.M., Ayyub, B.M., “Towards Real-Time Control of Construction Activities,” NAFIPS’91, Columbia, MO, May 14-17, 1991, workshop proceedings, edited by J. Keller and R. Krishnapuram, 403-407.
White, G.J., and Ayyub, B.M., “A Probabilistic Approach for Determining the Effect of Corrosion on the Life Expectancy of Marine Structures,” Marine Structural Inspection, Maintenance, and Monitoring Symposium, the Ship Structure Committee and SNAME, Arlington, Virginia, March 18-19, 1991, Appendix J.
Ayyub, B.M., and White, G.J., “Parametric Evaluation of Marine Structural Life Expectancy Using a Reliability-Based Methodology,” Marine Structural Inspection, Maintenance, and Monitoring Symposium, the Ship Structure Committee and SNAME, Arlington, Virginia, March 18-19, 1991, Appendix B.
Eldukair, Z.A., and Ayyub, B.M., “Multicriteria Event Tree Analysis for Evaluation of Construction Safety,” the International Conference on Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management (PSAM), Society of Risk Analysis, Beverly Hills, California, February 4-7, 1991, 971-977.
Ibrahim, A., and Ayyub, B.M., “Uncertainty Types in Risk-Based Evaluation of Structural Systems,” The First International Symposium on Uncertainty Modeling and Analysis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, December 3-5, 1990, 641-646.
Ibrahim A., and Ayyub, B.M., “Modeling Judgment Uncertainty in Inspection of Industrial Facilities,” The First International Symposium on Uncertainty Modeling and Analysis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, December 3-5, 1990, 463-468.
Eldukair, Z.A., and Ayyub, B.M., “Uncertainty Assessment in Correlation of Construction Projects,” The First International Symposium on Uncertainty Modeling and Analysis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, December 3-5, 1990, 372-377.
White, G.J., and Ayyub, B.M., “Semivariogram and Kriging Analysis in Developing Sampling Strategies,” The First International Symposium on Uncertainty Modeling and Analysis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, December 3-5, 1990, 360-365.
Alvi, I.A., and Ayyub, B.M., “Structural Reliability Assessment with Serviceability and Safety Considerations,” Symposium on Structural Design for Safety and Serviceability, ACI Convention, Philadelphia, PA, November 1990.
Eldukair, Z.A., and Ayyub, B.M., “Sensitivity Analysis for Risk Assessment of Construction Operations,” Sixth International Conference on Applications of Statistics and Reliability in Civil Engineering, Mexico, June 3-7, 1991, 56-65.
Alvi, I.A., and Ayyub, B. M., “Analysis of System Performance Under Stochastic and Fuzzy Uncertainty,” Proceedings of the North American Fuzzy Information Processing Society annual meeting, Volume II, edited by I. Burhan Turksen, University of Toronto, June 7-8, 1990, 366-369.
Eldukair, Z. A., and Ayyub, B. M., “Safety Optimization Methodology for Construction Operations,” Proceedings of the North American Fuzzy Information Processing Society annual meeting, Volume II, edited by I. Burhan Turksen, University of Toronto, June 7-8, 1990, 378-381.
Ayyub, B.M. and Haldar, A., “Probabilistic Safety Analysis of RC Buildings During Construction,” Structures Congress Abstracts, edited by Ross B. Corotis and Bruce Ellingwood, ASCE, Baltimore, MD, April 30-May 3, 1990, 71-72.
Ayyub, B. M., White, G. J., and Bell-Wright, T. F., “From Strain Measurements to Life Expectancy – A Model for Semi-displacement Ships,” Structures Congress Abstracts, edited by Ross B. Corotis and Bruce Ellingwood, ASCE, Baltimore, MD, April 30-May 3, 1990, 622-623.
Ayyub, B.M., and Eldukair, Z., “Safety Assessment Methodology for Construction Operations,” the proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Structural Safety and Reliability, ICOSSAR, Volume 1, published by ASCE, Edited by A. H-S. Ang, M. Shinozuka and G.I. Schuëller, San Francisco, August 7-11, 1989, 771-778.
Ayyub, B.M., and Ibrahim, A., “Reliability and Redundancy of Prestressed Truss Bridges,” the proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Structural Safety and Reliability, ICOSSAR, Volume 3, published by ASCE, Edited by A. H-S. Ang, M. Shinozuka and G.I. Schuëller, San Francisco, August 7-11, 1989, 2239-2242.
Ayyub, B.M., and McCuen, R.H., “Safety Assessment for Debris Basins,” the proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Structural Safety and Reliability, ICOSSAR, Volume 2, published by ASCE, Edited by A. H-S. Ang, M. Shinozuka and G.I. Schuëller, San Francisco, August 7-11, 1989, 1739-1746.
Ayyub, B.M., and Lai, K-L., “Structural Reliability Assessment Using Latin Hypercube Sampling,” the proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Structural Safety and Reliability, ICOSSAR, Volume 2, published by ASCE, Edited by A. H-S. Ang, M. Shinozuka and G.I. Schuëller, San Francisco, August 7-11, 1989, 1171-1184.
Eldukair, Z. A., Ayyub, B. M., “Deductive Tree Analysis for Evaluating the Reliability of Construction Operations,” Transactions of the 10th International Conference on Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology, Editor A.H. Hadjian, Vol. P, the American Association for Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology, August 14-18, 1989, 105-110.
Al-Mutairi, N.M., Ayyub, B.M., and Chang, P.C., “Fatigue Strength of Welded Steel Mesh,” Structures Congress, San Francisco, CA, published in Structural Materials, Edited by James F. Orofino, May 1-5, 1989, 392-401.
Ayyub, B.M., and Eldukair, Z.A., “Impact of Errors in Design and Construction Procedures on the Safety of Construction Operations,” Structures Congress, San Francisco, CA, published in Structural Design, Analysis and Testing, Edited by A. H-S. Ang, May 1-5, 1989, 835-843.
Ayyub, B.M., White, G.J., and Purcell, E.S., “Life Expectancy of Hull Structures of Boats,” International Seminar on The Life of Structures, Joint Institution of Structural Engineering/Building Research Establishment, Paper No. 24, Brighton, England, April 1989, 8 pages.
Eldukair, Z.A., and Ayyub, B.M., “Effect of Errors in Planning and Mobilization Procedures on the Safety of Construction Operations,” Construction Congress I, San Francisco, California, March 1989, 8 pages.
Ayyub, B.M., and Eldukair, Z.A., “Fuzzy Multi-Attribute Decision Analysis to Optimize the Safety of Construction Operations,” Workshop on Knowledge-Based Systems and Models of Logical Reasoning, Organized by the Scientific Centre for Organizing and Microfilming of Information, Cairo, Egypt, December 1988, 8 pages.
Chang, P.C., Ayyub, B.M., Bernold, L., and Al-Mutairi, N., “Use of Welded Steel Meshes in Bridge Decks,” National Science Foundation Workshop on Bridge Research in Progress, Iowa State University, Iowa, September 1988, 213-216.
Ayyub, B.M., Sohn, Y.G., and Saadatmanesh, H., “Static Strength of Simply Supported Prestressed Composite Girders,” National Science Foundation Workshop on Bridge Research in Progress, Iowa State University, Iowa, September 1988, 263-266.
Ayyub, B.M., and Ibrahim, A., “Reliability and Redundancy of Prestressed Truss Bridges,” National Science Foundation Workshop on Bridge Research in Progress, Iowa State University, September 1988, 301-304.
Ayyub, B.M., Sohn, Y.G., and Saadatmanesh, H., “Static Strength of Simply Supported Prestressed Composite Girders,” The Second International Conference on Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Structures (Including Composite Beams), Harbin, The People’s Republic of China, August 1988, 168-174.
Ayyub, B.M. and Ibrahim, A., “Reliability-Based Design of Prestressed Truss Bridges,” The Symposium on Reliability-Based Design in Civil Engineering, EPFL-ISRF, Volume 1, Switzerland, July 7-9 1988, 81-88.
Ayyub, B.M. and Eldukair, Z., “Statistical Analysis of Recent U.S. Construction Failures,” The Symposium on Reliability-Based Design in Civil Engineering, EPFL-ISRF, Volume 1, Switzerland, July 7-9 1988, 33-40.
Ayyub, B.M., and Lai, K-L., “Latin Hypercube Sampling in Simulation-Based Structural Reliability Assessment,” Applied Mechanics and Engineering Sciences Conference, Symposium on Computational Probabilistic Methods, ASME AMD Vol. D-93: Computational Probabilistic Methods, edited by W.K. Liu, et al, June 20-22, 1988, 115-122.
White, G.J., and Ayyub, B.M., “A Reliability-Conditioned Approach for the Fatigue Design of Marine Structures,” The Marine Structural Reliability Symposium, the Ship Structure Committee and the SNAME, Publication SY-23, Arlington, Virginia, October 5-6, 1987, 99-113.
Ayyub, B.M., and Zerrouk, A., “Parametric and Uncertainty Analysis of the Interaction Diagrams of Short Columns,” Engineering Mechanics Division Specialty Conference, ASCE, May 20-22, 1987, Buffalo, New York.
Ayyub, B.M. and McCuen, R.H., “Kriging Estimation of the Strength of Structural Components,” Fifth International Conference on Applications of Statistics and Probability in Soil and Structural Engineering, Vol. 1, Vancouver, Canada, May 25-29, 1987, 399-406.
Ayyub, B. M., and White, G.J., “Partial Safety Factors for Pressure Vessels,” Publication 86-PVP-9, ASME, July 1986, 6 pages.
Ayyub, B.M., and White, G.J., “Load and Resistance Factors for Structural Components,” International Symposium on Probabilistic Methods Applied to Electric Power Systems, Toronto, Canada, June 11-13, 1986, Edited by S. Krishnasamy, Pergamon Press, 65-72.
Ayyub, B.M., “A Damage Model for Lumber Based on Fuzzy Sets,” Fourth International Conference on Structural Safety and Reliability, ICOSSAR, Vol. 3, Kobe, Japan, May 1985, 675-679.
Ayyub, B.M., and Haldar, A., “Improved Simulation Techniques as Structural Reliability Models,” Fourth International Conference on Structural Safety and Reliability, ICOSSAR, Vol. 1, Kobe, Japan, May 1985, 17-26.
Haldar, A., and Ayyub, B.M., “Risk Models for Correlated Non-normal Variables,” Engineering Mechanics Division Specialty Conference, Vol. 2, ASCE, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming, August 1-3, 1984, 1237-1240.
Ayyub, B.M., and Haldar, A., “Reliability of R.C. Buildings During Construction,” Probabilistic Mechanics and Structural Reliability Specialty Conference, ASCE, Berkeley, California, January 11-13, 1984, 355-358.
Haldar, A., and Ayyub, B.M., “A Practical Probabilistic Model,” Engineering Mechanics Specialty Conference, ASCE, Vol. 2, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, May 1983, 948-951.